a systematic approach to collecting information and making inferences about the ability of a student or the quality or success of a teaching course on the basis of various sources of evidence. Assessment may be done by test, interview, questionnaire, observation, etc. For example, assessment of the comprehension ability of an immigrant student may be necessary to discover if the student is able to follow a course of study in a school, or whether extra language teaching is needed. Students may be tested at the beginning and again at the end of a course to assess the quality of the teaching on the course. The term “testing” is often associated with large-scale standardized tests, whereas the term “assessment” is used in a much wider sense to mean a variety of approaches in testing and assessment (Richard & Schmidt 2002, p. 35).